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This article is about the business concept. For other uses, see Commerce (disambiguation) .
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Commerce relates to “the exchange of goods and services , especially on a large scale.” [1]

It includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally .

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 History
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References

Etymology[ edit ]

Commerce is derived from the Latin commercium, from cum “together” and merx, “merchandise.” [2]

History[ edit ]

The caduceus – used today as the symbol of commerce, [3] and traditionally associated with the Roman god Mercury , patron of commerce, trickery and thieves.

Some commentators[ which? ] trace the origins of commerce to the very start of transactions in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency , trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other (the barter system was popular in ancient times where one could get goods and services by offering the other person some other good and service according to their need instead of paying with monetary systems, which developed later). Historian Peter Watson and Ramesh Manickam date the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. [4]

In historic times, the introduction of currency as a standardized money facilitated the wider exchange of goods and services. Numismatists have collections of tokens, which include coins from some Ancient-World large-scale societies, although initial usage involved unmarked lumps of precious metal . [5]

The circulation of a standardized currency provides a method of overcoming the major disadvantage to commerce through use of a barter system, the ” double coincidence of wants ” (which means if you want something from a person, that person should also be in need of a thing or a service which you can provide), necessary for barter trades to occur. For example, if a person who makes pots for a living needs a new house, he/she may wish to hire someone to build it for him/her. But he/she cannot make an equivalent number of pots to equal this service done for him/her, because even if the builder could build the house, the builder might not want many or any pots. Also, the barter system had a major drawback in that whatever goods a person get as payment may not necessarily store for long amounts of time. For example: if a person has got dozens of fruits as his payment, he/she can’t store fruit for long or they may rot – which means a person will have to bear a huge loss. Currency solved this problem by allowing a society as a whole to assign values [ citation needed ] and thus to collect goods and services effectively and to store them for later use, or to split them among minions.

During the Middle Ages , commerce developed in Europe through the trading of luxury goods at trade fairs . Some wealth became converted into movable wealth or capital .[ citation needed ] Banking systems developed where money on account was transferred[ by whom? ] across national boundaries. [6] Hand-to-hand markets became a feature of town life, and were regulated by town authorities. [7]

Today [update] commerce includes as a subset of itself a complex system of companies which try to maximize their profits by offering products and services to the market (which consists both of individuals and groups and other companies or institutions) at the lowest production cost . A system of international trade has helped to develop the world economy; but, in combination with bilateral or multilateral agreements to lower tariffs or to achieve free trade , has sometimes harmed third-world markets for local products (see Globalization .)

See also[ edit ]

  • Accounting
  • Advertising
  • Bachelor of Commerce
  • Business
  • Capitalism
  • Commercial law
  • Distribution (business)
    • Wholesale
    • Retailing
  • Cargo
  • Eco commerce
  • Economy
  • Electronic commerce
  • Export
  • Fair
  • Finance
  • Fishery
  • Harvest
  • Industry
  • BBA
  • Import
  • Laissez-faire
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing
  • Marketplace
  • Mass production
  • Master of Commerce
  • Merchandising
  • Trade

References[ edit ]

Look up commerce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. ^ Compare: “commerce” . Oxford University Press. commerce […] NOUN […] [mass noun] […] 1 The activity of buying and selling, especially on a large scale. 
  2. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). ” Commerce “. Encyclopædia Britannica . 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 766. 
  3. ^ Hans Biedermann, James Hulbert (trans.), Dictionary of Symbolism – Cultural Icons and the Meanings behind Them, p. 54.
  4. ^ Watson, Peter (2005). Ideas : A History of Thought and Invention from Fire to Freud. HarperCollins. ISBN   0-06-621064-X .  Introduction……./
  5. ^ Gold served especially commonly as a form of early money , as described in “Origins of Money and of Banking” – Davies, Glyn (2002). Ideas: A history of money from ancient times to the present day. University of Wales Press. ISBN   0-7083-1717-0 . 
  6. ^ Martha C. Howell (12 April 2010). Commerce Before Capitalism in Europe, 1300-1600 . Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-76046-1 . 
  7. ^
    Fernand Braudel (1982). Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: The wheels of commerce . University of California Press. p. 30. ISBN   978-0-520-08115-4 . 
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      The Seven Unique Features Of E-Commerce Essay

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      Keywords: 7 features of e-commerce, seven e-commerce features

      Assume that, you had bought two products through online. Explain why you choose to buy that product through online, pros and cons of online purchase.

      Introduction

      What is E-commerce? E-commerce is a business model or a larger business model that allows companies or individuals through the electronic network and is usually the type of business segments in the internet. E-commerce is also can do business it can provide a new way to companies of all sizes to create new relationships and extended relational operations on the basis of the now, website and network activity. E-commerce levels the playing field for any organization that chooses to participate, small or large. In addition, also can buy or sell goods and products on the internet. Can any trades through electronic measures can be the electronic commerce, and without using any paper documents, electronic commerce is subdivided into three categories: business to business in B2B, business to consumer or B2C and consumer to consumer or C2C. E-commerce includes a full variety of pre-sale and customer service activities.

      What is B2B (Business To Business)? B2B is a type of between manufacturers and wholesalers or wholesalers and retailers. Business to business refers to the business between the company rather than the company and personal consumption. What is B2C (Business to Customer)? B2C is also the trading between consumers. For example, to promote their products or services to the users directly between business and transaction. What is C2C (Customer to Customer)? C2C is the promotion and interaction between benefit and customer. Customer to customer is to provide location and talk to people, exchange and trading with other people.

      Answer of Question 1

      Every one of e-commerce has become a household name. There are known to have different calculations or e-commerce tools, we should learn our computers, using mobile Internet terms, and it is readily waiting for your attention. A main feature of e-commerce through commercial transactions is making money on the Internet. Today, you do not need to travel to meet people in the e-commerce retailers, manufacturers and consumers a whole new world. People have come to realize, the need for it, and start to enjoy it.

      I chose www.ridefourever.com website. In E-e-commerce e-commerce site types are 7 unique features, such as the Ubiquity, Global Reach, Universal Standards, Richness, Interactivity, Information Density, and Personalization.

      Seven Unique features of E-commerce

      1. Ubiquity- The traditional business market is a physical place, access to treatment by means of document circulation. For example, clothes and shoes are usually directed to encourage customers to go somewhere to buy. E-commerce is ubiquitous meaning that it can be everywhere. E-commerce is the worlds reduce cognitive energy required to complete the task.
      2. Global Reach- E-commerce allows business transactions on the cross country bound can be more convenient and more effective as compared with the traditional commerce. On the e-commerce businesses potential market scale is roughly equivalent to the network the size of the world’s population.
      3. Universal Standards- E-commerce technologies is an unusual feature, is the technical standard of the Internet, so to carry out the technical standard of e-commerce is shared by all countries around the world standard. Standard can greatly affect the market entry cost and considering the cost of the goods on the market. The standard can make technology business existing become more easily, which can reduce the cost, technique of indirect costs in addition can set the electronic commerce website 10$ / month.
      4. Richness- Advertising and branding are an important part of commerce. E-commerce can deliver video, audio, animation, billboards, signs and etc. However, it’s about as rich as television technology.
      5. Interactivity- Twentieth Century electronic commerce business technology is called interactive, so they allow for two-way communication between businesses and consumers.
      6. Information Density- The density of information the Internet has greatly improved, as long as the total amount and all markets, consumers and businesses quality information. The electronic commerce technology, reduce the information collection, storage, communication and processing cost. At the same time, accuracy and timeliness of the information technology increases greatly, information is more useful, more important than ever.
      7. Personalization- E-commerce technology allows for personalization. Business can be adjusted for a name, a person’s interests and past purchase message objects and marketing message to a specific individual. The technology also allows for custom. Merchants can change the product or service based on user preferences, or previous behavior.

      The seven unique features have its own function but also have disadvantages in this website. The seven unique features most in this website is no problem, but the information density has some disadvantages and it’s one of the seven unique features. Information density is the function of information to the Internet and the web site can be the total amount and all markets, consumers and enterprise quality information. At the same time, accuracy and timeliness of the consumers can know this website information. But the website in this regard is poor because of its language in this website is insufficient and even only a language so easily lead to consumers in the shopping website will be very troublesome, even if consumers do not understand the language may be to give up on this website shopping and even lead to this site is less and less people browse or buy. For example in this web site to buy clothes but the browsing process found that consumers choose clothes are not enough data to the customer cannot be assured to buy, so in this aspect of the problem should be properly modified and solve this problem. For example, should first website have a variety of linguistic choices can make different national consumers easily understand this website information easy to buy the goods. Then on the items, such as this site is selling the clothes should be more detailed write the item price, style, color and size, so that the customer more easy to buy. In addition, whenever new styles of clothing in the website promotion to the customer know.

      Conclusion

      In e-commerce we can see that these seven kinds of unique features in the function of the website. The seven unique features function is very important if no one function will make your site there are loopholes in the website, so an indispensable. The seven unique features were Ubiquity: available everywhere and all the time; Global Reach: users or customers can obtain total enterprise electronic commerce; Universal Standards: is shared by all countries around the world standard; Richness: complexity and message content; Interactivity: which allows for two-way communication between businesses and consumers, provide the quantity and quality of information in general; Information Density: to all market participants; Personalization: for marketing message to a specific person, by adjusting the news of interest, the name of a person and past purchases. E-commerce technology, allows customers to learn more and more consumers, more efficient use of the information. Online businesses can use this information to develop new information asymmetry, enhance their brand products, to charge higher prices, quality service and market segmentation of many groups, each of the different prices.


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