Computer Science Assignment Help - TextDjawebInfo
Menu

Computer Science Assignment Help

Assignment (computer science)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigation
Jump to search

For assignment of letters to disk file systems, see Drive letter assignment .

In computer programming , an assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name ; in other words, it copies a value into the variable. In most imperative programming languages , the assignment statement (or expression) is a fundamental construct.

Today, the most commonly used notation for this basic operation has come to be x = expr (originally Superplan 1949–51, popularized by Fortran 1957 and C ) followed by [1] x := expr (originally ALGOL 1958, popularised by Pascal ), [2] although there are many other notations in use. In some languages the symbol used is regarded as an operator (meaning that the assignment has a value) while others define the assignment as a statement (meaning that it cannot be used in an expression).

Assignments typically allow a variable to hold different values at different times during its life-span and scope . However, some languages (primarily strictly functional ) do not allow that kind of “destructive” reassignment, as it might imply changes of non-local state. The purpose is to enforce referential transparency , i.e. functions that do not depend on the state of some variable(s), but produce the same results for a given set of parametric inputs at any point in time. Modern programs in other languages also often use similar strategies, although less strict, and only in certain parts, in order to reduce complexity, normally in conjunction with complementing methodologies such as data structuring , structured programming and object orientation .

Contents

  • 1 Semantics
  • 2 Single assignment
  • 3 Value of an assignment
  • 4 Variant forms of assignment
    • 4.1 Augmented assignment
    • 4.2 Chained assignment
    • 4.3 Parallel assignment
  • 5 Assignment versus equality
  • 6 Notation
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 References

Semantics[ edit ]

An assignment operation is a process in imperative programming in which different values are associated with a particular variable name as time passes. [1] The program, in such model, operates by changing its state using successive assignment statements. [2] [3] Primitives of imperative programming languages rely on assignment to do iteration . [4] At the lowest level, assignment is implemented using machine operations such as MOVE or STORE. [2] [4]

Variables are containers for values. It is possible to put a value into a variable and later replace it with a new one. An assignment operation modifies the current state of the executing program. [3] Consequently, assignment is dependent on the concept of variables . In an assignment:

  • The expression is evaluated in the current state of the program.
  • The variable is assigned the computed value, replacing the prior value of that variable.

Example: Assuming that a is a numeric variable, the assignment a := 2*a means that the content of the variable a is doubled after the execution of the statement.

An example segment of C code:

int x = 10; float y;x = 23;y = 32.4f;

In this sample, the variable x is first declared as an int, and is then assigned the value of 10. Notice that the declaration and assignment occur in the same statement. In the second line, y is declared without an assignment. In the third line, x is reassigned the value of 23. Finally, y is assigned the value of 32.4.

For an assignment operation, it is necessary that the value of the expression is well-defined (it is a valid rvalue ) and that the variable represents a modifiable entity (it is a valid modifiable (non- const ) lvalue ). In some languages, typically dynamic ones, it is not necessary to declare a variable prior to assigning it a value. In such languages, a variable is automatically declared the first time it is assigned to, with the scope it is declared in varying by language.

Single assignment[ edit ]

See also: Static single assignment form

Any assignment that changes an existing value (e.g. x := x + 1) is disallowed in purely functional languages. [4] In functional programming , assignment is discouraged in favor of single assignment, also called initialization. Single assignment is an example of name binding and differs from assignment as described in this article in that it can only be done once, usually when the variable is created; no subsequent reassignment is allowed.

An evaluation of expression does not have a side effect if it does not change an observable state of the machine, [5] and produces same values for same input. [4] Imperative assignment can introduce side effects while destroying and making the old value unavailable while substituting it with a new one, [6] and is referred to as destructive assignment for that reason in LISP and functional programming , similar to destructive updating .

Single assignment is the only form of assignment available in purely functional languages, such as Haskell , which do not have variables in the sense of imperative programming languages [4] but rather named constant values possibly of compound nature with their elements progressively defined on-demand. Purely functional languages can provide an opportunity for computation to be performed in parallel , avoiding the von Neumann bottleneck of sequential one step at time execution, since values are independent of each other. [7]

Impure functional languages provide both single assignment as well as true assignment (though true assignment is typically used with less frequency than in imperative programming languages). For example, in Scheme, both single assignment (with let) and true assignment (with set!) can be used on all variables, and specialized primitives are provided for destructive update inside lists, vectors, strings, etc. In OCaml, only single assignment is allowed for variables, via the let name = value syntax; however destructive update can be used on elements of arrays and strings with separate <- operator, as well as on fields of records and objects that have been explicitly declared mutable (meaning capable of being changed after their initial declaration) by the programmer.

Functional programming languages that use single assignment include Clojure (for data structures, not vars), Erlang (it accepts multiple assignment if the values are equal, in contrast to Haskell), F# , Haskell , Lava , OCaml , Oz (for dataflow variables, not cells), Racket (for some data structures like lists, not symbols), SASL , Scala (for vals), SISAL , Standard ML . Non- backtracking Prolog code can be considered explicit single-assignment, explicit in a sense that its (named) variables can be in explicitly unassigned state, or be set exactly once. In Haskell, by contrast, there can be no unassigned variables, and every variable can be thought of as being implicitly set to its value (or rather to a computational object that will produce its value on demand) when it is created.

Value of an assignment[ edit ]

In some programming languages, an assignment statement returns a value, while in others it does not.

In most expression-oriented programming languages (for example, C ), the assignment statement returns the assigned value, allowing such idioms as x = y = a, in which the assignment statement y = a returns the value of a, which is then assigned to x. In a statement such as while ((ch = getchar()) != EOF) , the return value of a function is used to control a loop while assigning that same value to a variable.

In other programming languages, Scheme for example, the return value of an assignment is undefined and such idioms are invalid.

In Haskell , [8] there is no variable assignment; but operations similar to assignment (like assigning to a field of an array or a field of a mutable data structure) usually evaluate to the unit type , which is represented as (). This type has only one possible value, therefore containing no information. It is typically the type of an expression that is evaluated purely for its side effects.

Variant forms of assignment[ edit ]

Certain use patterns are very common, and thus often have special syntax to support them. These are primarily syntactic sugar to reduce redundancy in the source code, but can also simplify compilation by clarifying the programmer’s intent and easing analysis of the source code.

Augmented assignment[ edit ]

Main article: Augmented assignment

The case where the assigned value depends on a previous one is so common that many imperative languages, most notably C and the majority of its descendants, provide special operators called augmented assignment , like *=, so a = 2*a can instead be written as a *= 2. [3] Beyond syntactic sugar, this simplifies compilation, since it makes it clear that in-place modification of the variable a is possible.

Chained assignment[ edit ]

A statement like w = x = y = z is called a chained assignment in which the value of z is assigned to multiple variables w, x, and y. Chained assignments are often used to initialize multiple variables, as in

a = b = c = d = f = 0

Not all programming languages support chained assignment. Chained assignments are equivalent to a sequence of assignments, but the evaluation strategy differs between languages. For simple chained assignments, like initializing multiple variables, the evaluation strategy does not matter, but if the targets (l-values) in the assignment are connected in some way, the evaluation strategy affects the result.

In some programming languages ( C for example), chained assignments are supported because assignments are expressions, and have values. In this case chain assignment can be implemented by having a right-associative assignment , and assignments happen right-to-left. For example, i = arr[i] = f() is equivalent to arr[i] = f(); i = arr[i]. In C++ they are also available for values of class types by declaring the appropriate return type for the assignment operator.

In Python , assignment statements are not expressions and thus do not have a value. Instead, chained assignments are a series of statements with multiple targets for a single expression. The assignments are executed left-to-right so that i = arr[i] = f() evaluates the expression f(), then assigns the result to the leftmost target, i, and then assigns the same result to the next target, arr[i], using the new value of i. [9] This is essentially equivalent to tmp = f(); i = tmp; arr[i] = tmp though no actual variable is produced for the temporary value.

Parallel assignment[ edit ]

Some programming languages, such as APL , Go , [10] JavaScript (since 1.7), PHP , Maple , Lua , occam 2 , [11] Perl , [12] Python , [13] REBOL , Ruby , [14] and Windows PowerShell allow several variables to be assigned in parallel, with syntax like:

a, b := 0, 1

which simultaneously assigns 0 to a and 1 to b. This is most often known as parallel assignment; it was introduced in CPL in 1963, under the name simultaneous assignment, [15] and is sometimes called multiple assignment, though this is confusing when used with “single assignment”, as these are not opposites. If the right-hand side of the assignment is a single variable (e.g. an array or structure), the feature is called unpacking [16] or destructuring assignment: [17]

var list := 0, 1
a, b := list

The list will be unpacked so that 0 is assigned to a and 1 to b. Furthermore,

a, b := b, a

swaps the values of a and b. In languages without parallel assignment, this would have to be written to use a temporary variable

var t := a
a := b
b := t

since a := b; b := a leaves both a and b with the original value of b.

Some languages, such as Go and Python, combine parallel assignment, tuples, and automatic tuple unpacking to allow multiple return values from a single function, as in this Python example:

def f(): return 1, 2a, b = f()

This provides an alternative to the use of output parameters for returning multiple values from a function. This dates to CLU (1974), and CLU helped popularize parallel assignment generally.

In C and C++, the comma operator is similar to parallel assignment in allowing multiple assignments to occur within a single statement, writing a = 1, b = 2 instead of a, b = 1, 2.
This is primarily used in for loops , and is replaced by parallel assignment in other languages such as Go. [18]
However, the above C++ code does not ensure perfect simultaneity, since the right side of the following code a = b, b = a+1 is evaluated after the left side. In languages such as Python, a, b = b, a+1 will assign the two variables concurrently, using the initial value of a to compute the new b.

Assignment versus equality[ edit ]

See also: Relational operator § Confusion with assignment operators

The use of the equals sign = as an assignment operator has been frequently criticized, due to the conflict with equals as comparison for equality. This results both in confusion by novices in writing code, and confusion even by experienced programmers in reading code. The use of equals for assignment dates back to Heinz Rutishauser ‘s language Superplan, designed from 1949 to 1951, and was particularly popularized by Fortran:

A notorious example for a bad idea was the choice of the equal sign to denote assignment. It goes back to Fortran in 1957 [a] and has blindly been copied by armies of language designers. Why is it a bad idea? Because it overthrows a century old tradition to let “=” denote a comparison for equality, a predicate which is either true or false. But Fortran made it to mean assignment, the enforcing of equality. In this case, the operands are on unequal footing: The left operand (a variable) is to be made equal to the right operand (an expression). x = y does not mean the same thing as y = x. [19]

—  Niklaus Wirth , Good Ideas, Through the Looking Glass

Beginning programmers sometimes confuse assignment with the relational operator for equality, as “=” means equality in mathematics, and is used for assignment in many languages. But assignment alters the value of a variable, while equality testing tests whether two expressions have the same value.

In some languages, such as BASIC , a single equals sign ("=") is used for both the assignment operator and the equality relational operator, with context determining which is meant. Other languages use different symbols for the two operators. For example:

  • In Pascal , the assignment operator is a colon and an equals sign (":=") while the equality operator is a single equals ("=").
  • In C , the assignment operator is a single equals sign ("=") while the equality operator is a pair of equals signs ("==").
  • In R , the assignment operator is basically <-, as in x <- value, but a single equals sign can be used in certain contexts.

The similarity in the two symbols can lead to errors if the programmer forgets which form (“=“, “==“, “:=“) is appropriate, or mistypes “=” when “==” was intended. This is a common programming problem with languages such as C (including one famous attempt to backdoor the Linux kernel [20] ), where the assignment operator also returns the value assigned (in the same way that a function returns a value), and can be validly nested inside expressions. If the intention was to compare two values in an if statement, for instance, an assignment is quite likely to return a value interpretable as Boolean true, in which case the then clause will be executed, leading the program to behave unexpectedly. Some language processors (such as gcc ) can detect such situations, and warn the programmer of the potential error.

Notation[ edit ]

See also: Comparison of programming languages (variable and constant declarations)

The two most common representations for the copying assignment are equals sign (=) and colon-equals (:=). Both forms may semantically denote either an assignment statement or an assignment operator (which also has a value), depending on language and/or usage.

variable = expression Fortran , PL/I , C (and descendants such as C++ , Java , etc.), Bourne shell , Python , Go (assignment to pre-declared variables), R , Windows PowerShell , etc.
variable := expression ALGOL (and derivatives), Simula , CPL , BCPL , Pascal [21] (and descendants such as Modula ), Mary , PL/M , Ada , Smalltalk , Eiffel , [22] [23] Oberon , Dylan , [24] Seed7 , Go (shorthand for declaring and defining a variable), [25] Io , AMPL , ML , [26] AutoHotkey etc.

Other possibilities include a left arrow or a keyword, though there are other, rarer, variants:

variable << expression Magik
variable <- expression F# , OCaml , R , S
variable <<- expression R
assign("variable", expression) R
variableexpression APL , [27] Smalltalk
variable =: expression J
LET variable = expression BASIC
let variable := expression XQuery
set variable to expression AppleScript
set variable = expression C shell
Set-Variable variable (expression) Windows PowerShell
variable : expression Macsyma, Maxima , Rebol
var variable expression mIRC scripting language
reference-variable :- reference-expression Simula

Mathematical pseudo code assignments are generally depicted with a left-arrow.

Some platforms put the expression on the left and the variable on the right:

MOVE expression TO variable COBOL
expressionvariable TI-BASIC , Casio BASIC
expression -> variable BETA , R
put expression into variable LiveCode

Some expression-oriented languages, such as Lisp [28] [29] and Tcl, uniformly use prefix (or postfix) syntax for all statements, including assignment.

(setf variable expression) Common Lisp
(set! variable expression) Scheme [30] [31] [32]
set variable expression Tcl
expression variable ! Forth

See also[ edit ]

  • Assignment operator in C++
  • Operator (programming)
  • Name binding
  • Unification (computing)
  • Immutable object
  • Const-correctness

Notes[ edit ]

  1. ^ Use of = predates Fortran, though it was popularized by Fortran.

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ a b “2cs24 Declarative” . www.csc.liv.ac.uk. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c “Imperative Programming” . uah.edu. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c Ruediger-Marcus Flaig (2008). Bioinformatics programming in Python: a practical course for beginners . Wiley-VCH. pp. 98–99. ISBN   978-3-527-32094-3 . Retrieved 25 December 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Crossing borders: Explore functional programming with Haskell Archived November 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ., by Bruce Tate
  5. ^ Mitchell, John C. (2003). Concepts in programming languages . Cambridge University Press. p. 23. ISBN   978-0-521-78098-8 . Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  6. ^ “Imperative Programming Languages (IPL)” (PDF). gwu.edu. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  7. ^ John C. Mitchell (2003). Concepts in programming languages . Cambridge University Press. pp. 81–82. ISBN   978-0-521-78098-8 . Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  8. ^ Hudak, Paul (2000). The Haskell School of Expression: Learning Functional Programming Through Multimedia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0-521-64408-9 . 
  9. ^ “7. Simple statements — Python 3.6.5 documentation” . docs.python.org. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  10. ^ The Go Programming Language Specification: Assignments
  11. ^ INMOS Limited, ed. (1988). Occam 2 Reference Manual. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN   0-13-629312-3 . 
  12. ^ Wall, Larry ; Christiansen, Tom; Schwartz, Randal C. (1996). Perl Programming Language (2 ed.). Cambridge: O´Reilly. ISBN   1-56592-149-6 . 
  13. ^ Lutz, Mark (2001). Python Programming Language (2 ed.). Sebastopol: O´Reilly. ISBN   0-596-00085-5 . 
  14. ^ Thomas, David; Hunt, Andrew (2001). Programming Ruby: The Pragmatic Programmer’s Guide. Upper Saddle River: Addison Wesley. ISBN   0-201-71089-7 . 
  15. ^ D.W. Barron et al., “The main features of CPL”, Computer Journal 6:2:140 (1963). full text (subscription)
  16. ^ “PEP 3132 — Extended Iterable Unpacking” . legacy.python.org. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  17. ^ “Destructuring assignment” . MDN Web Docs. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  18. ^ Effective Go : for ,
    “Finally, Go has no comma operator and ++ and — are statements not expressions. Thus if you want to run multiple variables in a for you should use parallel assignment (although that precludes ++ and –).”
  19. ^ Niklaus Wirth. “Good Ideas, Through the Looking Glass”. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.88.8309  Freely accessible.  Missing or empty |url= ( help ); |access-date= requires |url= ( help )
  20. ^ Corbet (6 November 2003). “An attempt to backdoor the kernel” . 
  21. ^ Moore, Lawrie (1980). Foundations of Programming with Pascal. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN   0-470-26939-1 . 
  22. ^ Meyer, Bertrand (1992). Eiffel the Language. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall International(UK). ISBN   0-13-247925-7 . 
  23. ^ Wiener, Richard (1996). An Object-Oriented Introduction to Computer Science Using Eiffel. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN   0-13-183872-5 . 
  24. ^ Feinberg, Neal; Keene, Sonya E.; Mathews, Robert O.; Withington, P. Tucker (1997). Dylan Programming. Massachusetts: Addison Wesley. ISBN   0-201-47976-1 . 
  25. ^ “The Go Programming Language Specification – The Go Programming Language” . golang.org. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  26. ^ Ullman, Jeffrey D. (1998). Elements of ML Programming: ML97 Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN   0-13-790387-1 . 
  27. ^ Iverson, Kenneth E. (1962). A Programming Language . John Wiley and Sons. ISBN   0-471-43014-5 . 
  28. ^ Graham, Paul (1996). ANSI Common Lisp. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN   0-13-370875-6 . 
  29. ^ Steele, Guy L. (1990). Common Lisp: The Language. Lexington: Digital Press. ISBN   1-55558-041-6 . 
  30. ^ Dybvig, R. Kent (1996). The Scheme Programming Language: ANSI Scheme. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN   0-13-454646-6 . 
  31. ^ Smith, Jerry D. (1988). Introduction to Scheme. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN   0-13-496712-7 . 
  32. ^ Abelson, Harold; Sussman, Gerald Jay; Sussman, Julie (1996). Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. New Jersey: McGraw-Hill. ISBN   0-07-000484-6 . 

Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Assignment_(computer_science)&oldid=858539739 ”
Categories :

  • Programming language concepts
  • Assignment operations
Hidden categories:

  • Webarchive template wayback links
  • Pages using web citations with no URL
  • Pages using citations with accessdate and no URL

Navigation menu

Personal tools

  • Not logged in
  • Talk
  • Contributions
  • Create account
  • Log in

Namespaces

  • Article
  • Talk

Variants

    Views

    • Read
    • Edit
    • View history

    More


      Navigation

      • Main page
      • Contents
      • Featured content
      • Current events
      • Random article
      • Donate to Wikipedia
      • Wikipedia store

      Interaction

      • Help
      • About Wikipedia
      • Community portal
      • Recent changes
      • Contact page

      Tools

      • What links here
      • Related changes
      • Upload file
      • Special pages
      • Permanent link
      • Page information
      • Wikidata item
      • Cite this page

      Print/export

      • Create a book
      • Download as PDF
      • Printable version

      Languages

      • العربية
      • Čeština
      • Deutsch
      • Esperanto
      • Français
      • Hrvatski
      • Italiano
      • עברית
      • Polski
      • Português
      • Русский
      • ไทย
      • Українська
      • Tiếng Việt
      • 中文
      Edit links

      • This page was last edited on 7 September 2018, at 22:31 (UTC).
      • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
        additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
      • Privacy policy
      • About Wikipedia
      • Disclaimers
      • Contact Wikipedia
      • Developers
      • Cookie statement
      • Mobile view
      • Wikimedia Foundation
      • Powered by MediaWiki

      Menu

      Close Button

      • Homes/
      • services

        • Assignment help
        • custom essay help
        • research paper help
        • dissertation help
        • case study
        • course work help
        • homework help
        • online tutoring
        • book report
        • term paper
        • proofreading
        • power point presentation
        • resume writing
        • cover letter
        • CV writing
        • movie review
        • online quiz
        • writing help
      • pages
      • blog
      • shop

      Have any question ?
      +61-2-8005-8227
      [email protected]ors.com

      offers new

      • worldCountry
      • Australia FlagAustralia
      • United States FlagUSA
      • United Arab Emirates FlagUAE
      • New Zealand FlagNew Zealand
      • United Kingdom FlagUK
      • Singapore FlagSingapore
      • Malaysia FlagMalaysia
      • Canada FlagCanada
      Signup/Login

      Close Button

      • Home
      • services
      • offers
      • blog
      • Assignment Library

      Signup/Login

      Back
      All services
      Close Button

      • Assignment Help
      • Back
        All services
        Close Button

        • Assignment Services

          • case study assignment help
          • my assignment help
          • do my assignment
          • eviews assignment help
          • solve my assignment
          • literature assignment help
          • pay for my assignment
          • literature review
          • make my assignment
          • editing services
          • tafe assignment help
          • minitab assignment help
          • m plus assignment help
          • media
          • microeconomics
          • mass communication
          • assignment writer
          • Assignment Help
          • Buy Assignment Online
        • Engineering

          • Engineering
          • electrical engineering assignment help
          • civil engineering assignment help
          • software engineering assignment help
          • information technology assignment help
          • mechanical engineering assignment help
          • computer science
        • Mechanical

          • matlab
          • solidworks
          • thermodynamics
          • CAD assignment help
          • AUTOCAD assignment help
        • Basic Subjects

          • social science
          • biology
          • chemistry
          • math
          • physics
          • english
          • geography
          • geology
          • History Assignment Help
        • Law

          • Law
          • business law
          • taxation law
          • commercial law
          • Taxation
          • Criminal Law Assignment Help
        • Management

          • Management
          • entrepreneurship assignment help online
          • get business administration assignment help
          • asset managment assignment help
          • business communication assignment help
          • behaviour management assignment help
          • international business assignment help
          • leadership assignment help
          • business management
          • marketing
          • marketing research
          • risk management
          • MBA assignment
          • e marketing
          • global marketing
          • international banking
          • industrial relations
          • operations management
          • organizational behavior
          • total quality management
          • project management
          • hr case study
        • Accounting and Finance

          • australian taxation system
          • managerial accounting
          • statistics
          • econometrics
          • economics
          • Corporate Accounting
          • financial accounting
          • accounting
          • finance
          • Auditing Assignment Help
        • Programming

          • computer architecture assignment help
          • computer graphics assignment help
          • spss assignment help
          • animation
          • big data
          • catia
          • r programming assignment help
          • r studio assignment help
          • python programming
          • Java
          • sql
          • stata
          • information system
          • data flow diagram assignment help
          • data analysis
          • computer network assignment help
          • c programming assignment help
          • operating system
          • archicad
        • Medical

          • childcare
          • health science
          • nursing
          • nursing case study assignment help
          • biotechnology assignment help
          • Reflective Nursing Assignment Help
        • Humanities

          • humanities assignment help online
          • children literature
          • human resource development
          • human resource management
          • strategic human resource management
          • psychology
          • communication
          • consumer behaviour
          • culture
          • customer relationship management
          • climate change
          • international human resource management
          • international relations
          • public health care
          • geo technical engineering assignment help
          • artificial intelligence assignment help
          • political science assignment help
          • environmental
          • water resources

      • Homework
      • Back
        All services
        Close Button

        • Homework help

          • accounting
          • biology
          • chemistry
          • economics
          • finance
          • management
          • math
          • physics
          • statistics
          • taxation
          • Homework Help

      • Writing Services
      • Back
        All services
        Close Button

        • Writing Services help

          • online quiz help
          • proof reading help
          • research paper help
          • resume writing
          • book report
          • cv writing
          • write my assignment
          • assignment writing service
          • best essay writing services in australia at lowest price
          • coursework
          • custom essay writing services
          • essay writing assistance
          • management essay writing help
          • Assignment writing Help
          • Reflective Writing Help
          • Persuasive Essay Writing Help
          • college essay writing help
          • essay writing help

      • Dissertation
      • Back
        All services
        Close Button

        • Dissertation help

          • dissertation writing service
          • Dissertation Help

      • Universities
      • Back
        All services
        Close Button

        • Assignment by Universities

          • bond university
          • charles darwin university
          • charles sturt university
          • deakin university
          • edith cowan university
          • griffith university
          • james cook university
          • la trobe university
          • macquarie university
          • melbourne university
          • monash university
          • royal melbourne institute of technology university
          • southern cross university
          • swinburne university
          • university of new castle
          • university of new england
          • university of new south wales
          • university of queensland
          • university of south australia
          • university of sydney
          • university of tasmania
          • university of technology
          • wollongong university
          • Universities

      • city
      • Back
        All services
        Close Button

        • Assignment by City

          • assignment help adelaide
          • assignment help brisbane
          • assignment help gold coast
          • assignment help in melbourne
          • assignment help in wollongong
          • assignment help perth
          • assignment help sydney
          • essay assignment help in queensland
          • online assignment help in tasmania

      • country
      • Back
        All services
        Close Button

        • Assignment by Country

          • Australia
          • new zealand
          • United Kingdom
          • United States of America
          • Malaysia
          • Singapore
          • United Arab Emirates

      menu

      logo

      LiveWebTutors

      • Home
      • Services
        Down Arrow

        • Assignment Help

          • Assignment Services

            • cheap assignment help
            • case study assignment help
            • my assignment help
            • do my assignment
            • eviews assignment help
            • solve my assignment
            • literature assignment help
            • pay for my assignment
            • literature review
            • make my assignment
            • editing services
            • tafe assignment help
            • minitab assignment help
            • m plus assignment help
            • media
            • microeconomics
            • mass communication
            • assignment writer
            • Assignment Help
            • Buy Assignment Online
            • college assignment help
            • assignment provider
          • Engineering

            • Engineering
            • electrical engineering
            • civil engineering
            • software engineering
            • information technology
            • mechanical engineering
            • computer science
          • Mechanical

            • matlab
            • solidworks
            • thermodynamics
            • CAD
            • AUTOCAD
          • Basic Subjects

            • social science
            • biology
            • chemistry
            • math
            • physics
            • english
            • geography
            • geology
            • History
            • Economics
          • Law

            • Law
            • business law
            • taxation law
            • commercial law
            • Taxation
            • Criminal Law
          • Management

            • Management
            • entrepreneurship
            • business administration
            • asset management
            • business communication
            • behaviour management
            • international business
            • leadership
            • business management
            • marketing
            • marketing research
            • risk management
            • MBA assignment
            • e marketing
            • Business
            • global marketing
            • international banking
            • industrial relations
            • operations management
            • organizational behavior
            • total quality management
            • project management
            • hr case study
          • Accounting and Finance

            • Australian taxation system
            • managerial accounting
            • statistics
            • econometrics
            • economics
            • Corporate Accounting
            • financial accounting
            • accounting
            • finance
            • Auditing Assignment Help
            • MYOB Perdisco
          • Programming

            • computer architecture
            • computer graphics
            • SPSS
            • animation
            • big data
            • catia
            • r programming
            • r studio
            • python programming
            • Java
            • SQL
            • stata
            • information system
            • data flow diagram
            • data analysis
            • computer network
            • c programming
            • operating system
            • archicad
            • Programming
          • Medical

            • childcare
            • health science
            • nursing
            • nursing case study
            • biotechnology
            • Reflective Nursing
          • Humanities

            • humanities
            • children literature
            • human resource development
            • human resource management
            • strategic human resource management
            • psychology
            • communication
            • consumer behaviour
            • culture
            • customer relationship management
            • climate change
            • international human resource management
            • international relations
            • public health care
            • geo technical engineering
            • artificial intelligence
            • political scienc
            • environmental
            • water resources
        • Homework

          • Homework help

            • accounting
            • biology
            • chemistry
            • economics
            • finance
            • management
            • math
            • physics
            • statistics
            • taxation
            • Homework Help
        • Writing Services

          • Writing Services help

            • online quiz help
            • proof reading help
            • research paper help
            • resume writing
            • book report
            • cv writing
            • write my assignment
            • assignment writing service
            • best essay writing services in australia at lowest price
            • custom essay writing services
            • essay writing assistance
            • management essay writing help
            • Assignment writing Help
            • Reflective Writing Help
            • Persuasive Essay Writing Help
            • college essay writing help
            • essay writing help
        • Coursework

          • Coursework help

            • Coursework Assignment Help
            • Coursework Writing Service
        • Dissertation

          • Dissertation help

            • dissertation writing service
            • Dissertation Help
            • Dissertation Help Australia
        • CDR

          • CDR Report

            • CDR Report Writing
            • CDR Report Help
        • Universities

          • Assignment by Universities

            • bond university
            • charles darwin university
            • charles sturt university
            • deakin university
            • edith cowan university
            • griffith university
            • james cook university
            • la trobe university
            • macquarie university
            • melbourne university
            • monash university
            • royal melbourne institute of technology university
            • southern cross university
            • swinburne university
            • university of new castle
            • university of new england
            • university of new south wales
            • university of queensland
            • university of south australia
            • university of sydney
            • university of tasmania
            • university of technology
            • wollongong university
          • Universities Assignment Help
        • City

          • Assignment by City

            • assignment help adelaide
            • assignment help brisbane
            • assignment help gold coast
            • assignment help in melbourne
            • assignment help in wollongong
            • assignment help perth
            • assignment help sydney
            • essay assignment help in queensland
            • online assignment help in tasmania
        • Country

          • Assignment by Country

            • Australia
            • new zealand
            • United Kingdom
            • United States of America
            • Malaysia
            • Singapore
            • United Arab Emirates
      • blog
      • Assignment Library

      Computer Science Assignment Help

      We guarantee impeccable and 100% authentic Computer Science assignment Help at a low price to Secure A+ Grade in your Academic Assignments.


      Home > Assignment Help > Computer Science

      Computer Science Assignment Help

      Computer science basically deals with computer designing and its programming. It has applications in vast areas such as engineering, arts, and sciences. This stream covers both theory and practice. It includes the theoretical study of algorithms and their practical application in computer hardware and software.If you require Computer Science assignment writing service with complete efficiency, Livewebtutors has to be your go to company. We make sure to understand your needs first and craft the assignment accordingly. Our computer science assignment experts are available 24*7 to assist you with all your queries and doubts instantly.

      Computer Science Assignment Help

      Computer Science Assignment Help

      The major subjects which are covered in computer science are computer architecture, automata or computation, programming languages such as C, C++, JAVA, DOT net, computer networking, computer graphics and multimedia applications, data structures, operating systems, software engineering, software testing and quality assurance. Computer architecture is a design based on concepts and comprises a computer’s fundamental operational structure.

      Computer Science Homework Help:

      TheCentral Processing Unit (CPU)and how it accesses the addresses in the main memory. With the help of computer architecture, hardware components of a computer are selected and interconnected.

      Automata is the study of abstract computing devices. A mathematical model of computing is considered on this subject. With its help, the computational machinery and the programming languages can be reduced to the minimum.

      The mathematical model used in this is almost equivalent to the real computers and the programming languages used.Programming languages are the instructions given by the user to the computer in his own language which is then translated into machine language and instructions are executed further.

      The most widely used programming languages are C, C++, and JAVA. A programming language can generally be divided into two parts: syntax and semantics.Computer networking deals with the computer networks which consist of a number of interconnected computers. This interconnected network of computers is used to transfer information from one point to another. Computer networks allow long distance connections and also sharing of data among various users.

      Computer graphics are related to the production of images, charts, lines etc which is done with the help of programming. There are basically two types of computer graphics viz. interactive and non-interactive. In interactive graphics, the user can manipulate the graphics but in non-interactive graphics, a user cannot do so. It is used in designing video games etc. We provide Computer science assignment help in very well manner.

      Data Structuresdeal with the organization of data present in computer’s main memory or even in disk storage. The various types of data structures are linked lists, queues, trees, stacks etc.With the implementation of data structure, the operations on data can be performed in an efficient manner saving a lot of memory and time. In each type of data structure, data is accessed in a unique way.

      TheOperating Systemprovides an interface between the user of the computer and the computer itself. The management of both hardware and software is done with the help of operating system. It handles a number of devices and programs at the same time.

      Software Engineeringbasically deals with the development of software. It also includes software operation and maintenance. Software engineering  is the application of engineering to software. After software development is its quality test and quality assurance. The software is tested on various parameters to make sure it is a good product.

      A reputable assignment writing service
      • view sample
      • order now
      • live chat

      Computer Science Assignment Help by Livewebtutors

      Livewebtutors boasts of a unit of computer science assignment help experts who are experienced in crafting prime quality assignment and different forms of written assignments. Our computer science assignment help experts are available 24*7 online so that you can clear your queries and get response to your doubts the minute you require it. Our computer science assignment help experts further provide helpful sample solution concerning computer science assignments so that you can provide quality computer science assignment help on your own. Our computer science assignment help experts ensure well-researched, plagiarism-free and authentic content at very vying price. So register in now to get computer science assignment help!

      Why Livewebtutors

      Based In Australia, Livewebtutors will assist you one of the best computer science assignment writing help as per your requirements. Our professionals will share your assignments before the restricted time frame so that before you can submit you assignment after checking.

      We make sure computer science assignments are fully unique and non-plagiarized. If you are seeking for prominent online assignment help solutions, Livewebtutors has to be prime option with highly qualified computer science assignment help professionals and writer at work.

      upload assignment

      Loading. Please wait.

      slide

      Get your assignment

      Don’t delay more, place your order now. Quick assignment help will be offered to you.

      down

      order now

      chat

      All subject link

      • Accounting
      • Australian Taxation System
      • AUTOCAD
      • Biology
      • Business Law
      • Business Management
      • CAD
      • Chemistry
      • Civil Engineering
      • Commercial Law
      • Computer Science
      • Corporate Accounting
      • Dissertation Help
      • Economics
      • Electrical Engineering
      • Engineering
      • English
      • Finance
      • Financial Accounting
      • Geography
      • Geology
      • Information Technology
      • Java
      • Management
      • Managerial Accounting
      • Marketing
      • Marketing Research
      • Math
      • Matlab
      • MBA
      • Mechanical Engineering
      • Nursing
      • Nursing Case Study
      • Online Quiz Help
      • Physics
      • Psychology
      • Python Programming
      • R Programming
      • R Studio
      • Risk Management
      • Social Science
      • Software Engineering
      • Solidworks
      • SPSS
      • SQL
      • Statistics
      • Taxation
      • Taxation Law
      • Thermodynamics
      • Law
      • Humanities
      • Writing Services

      java assignment help

      CALL US FOR LIVE ASSISTANCE

      Now take our online assignment writing services in Australia.

      • view sample
      • order now
      • live chat

      payment methods PayPal

      About us

      livewebtutors is the finest platform for all the assignment help for students. Here you can avail the optimum writing help under the guidance of renowned researchers and subject experts…

      start learn

      Get To Know Us

      • About Us
      • Contact Us
      • blog
      • Jobs
      • loyalty

      Quick links

      • FAQ
      • terms and conditions
      • privacy policy
      • Refund & Revision policy
      • Payment
      • Site Map

      Contact us

      • LiveWebTutors Ashfield, NSW 2131, Australia.
      • AUS +61-2-8005-8227
      • USA +1-315-400-1441
      • [email protected]
      Facebook Icon
      twitter Icon
      google plus Icon
      LinkedIn Icon
      YouTube Icon

      © Livewebtutors. All Rights Reserved 2018

      Livewebtutors

      Rated 4.9/5 based on 2480 reviews

      Arrow up
      Facebook

      Twitter

      Pinterest

      Google Plus

      USA   USA +1 585-535-1023  
      UK  UK+44-208-133-5697  
      AUS  AUS +61-280-07-5697

      Logo
      Logo
      Logo
      Logo
      Logo

      Online Support Chat



      Computer Science Assignment Help

      Getting Help with Computer Science Assignments

      Introduction

      Computer science is a discipline in science that involves theory and practice. The works and results of computer science can be seen everywhere. Everyone is practically a computer user in today’s world. Computer science is all about getting computers to do what a user wants it to do. This requires extensive practical experience. Computer science is more of a science of problem solving. Computer science practitioners must be very good in modelling and analyzing problems. This involves adept design of solutions and testing their effectiveness. Precision, creativity and reasoning are the key pillars of problem solving. Computer science spans various discipline such as medicine, business, and engineering among others.

      Computer science is mainly practiced by scientists, mathematicians and engineers. Therefore computer science requires a lot of knowledge from other disciplines not computers only. Some major areas in computer science include:

      1. Operating systems- involve development of programs that facilitate human-machine communication.
      2. Computational science- involves solving mathematical problems using computers.
      3. Programming languages- the study of the languages which humans communicate with computers.
      4. Software engineering- the study of software design, development, testing and maintenance.
      5. Information storage and retrieval- this involves the study of methods for storing data in a computer and methods for searching and retrieving this data.

      For computer engineering and programming help, Click here .

      Many computer science students find this subject difficult therefore they require constant computer science assignment help.

      Getting help

      To become adept with computers science, students require to be helped with their computer science assignments. Getting assistance for computer science homework helps the students to strengthen their ideas and have good knowledge and concepts. Various sources of assistance require lots of research. Therefore help offered for computer science homework would become very resourceful and leads to a student having important information from tones of research. Some sources of help would be;

      1. Lecturers- lecturers when available are the best source of help. When not having lectures they can be easily found at the lecturers lounge or office whenever their assistance is required. They always will have first-hand information due to research and experience in lectures. If a student is in a stuck situation he /she may schedule a meeting with the lecturer to get help for their computer science assignment.
      2. Graduate assistant- graduate assistants are fresh graduates in various schools and are increasingly being employed in universities. They may offer help with computer science assignments. They are probably situated at the dean’s offices.
      3. Tutors/ mentors- a tutor may be a computer scientist whom in many cases end up to be students mentors who the student looks up to for the entire professional career. A mentor may be a good source for computer science homework help. They may be very resourceful for especially practical assignments because of their practice in the field. A student may schedule a routine with their mentor to acquire help with their homework.
      4. Finally students may opt to find help with their computer science assignment online. Finding help online is very resourceful and unique. A student may luckily find a computer science professional or freelance for his computer science homework help.

      Considerations for online help

      If a student decide to settle for the online assistance there are some thing that he or she should consider before choosing a freelance computer scientist to help with the computer science assignment.

      First the student should outline instructions given by the university professor regarding this assignment and make sure that the online helper understands the instructions and abide to them else the help will be useless and will result the student to failing. Following instructions are usually part of the test.

      Secondly before offering payment for the help the student should chat with the freelancer to clarify any doubts that may exist. And also make explanations to points that are not clear and straight. The student should make sure that he/she understands the work done, otherwise the whole help will be useless and shall have lost money

      If important the student may add some content and edit the assignment to add a personal touch and formatting. The student should go through the whole work before submitting the assignment so as to verify for relevance and accuracy of the information.

      Lastly it’s important to test the submitted assignment for plagiarism and prove uniqueness. Online freelancers may sometime just copy and paste online/ done articles and offer assignments that are not unique.

      Library

      The library is a very resourceful source of information. Computer science textbooks, journals, research papers and articles can be found at the library. Sometime libraries are the only source of help for computer science assignment that students have. Reading a textbook or a journal or a research paper may help you find answers for your computer science homework. A student should read the lines not thinking that he/she is studying but read as an interesting and informative book. Concentrating and dedicating to read is the key for this source of help with your computer science assignment.

      24×7 Assignment Help

      Computer science homework and assignments can find assistance from 24×7 Assignment Help. 24×7 Assignment Help is an online agency that provides best online homework help for all students. The team is made of professionals in a wide spectrum of subjects. If you are looking to get help with your computer science assignment then 24×7 Assignment help will work for you. 24×7 Assignment Help offers a 24/7 tutoring service for computer science by computer science professionals. They provide interactive online tutoring that enables you deliver assignments on time. Tutors are available around the clock and they will offer convenient and affordable help.

      Our Topics

      computer-science-assignment-help

      The content provided to students is 100% plagiarism free and is professionally researched and relevant. If reference is needed, the content is well referenced so that if more information is needed a relevant reference is provided to ease your work. The professionals at 24x7assignmenthelp.com have vast experience and associations with academic personnel and are ready to share their experience with students who require help and provide information that is fast and accurate.

      How It Works
      Customer Reviews

      Rating View

      24×7 Assignment Help

      Rated 4.8 out of 5 based on 52 customer reviews at 24x7AssignmentHelp.com reviews

       

      Assignment  Homework Help
      • Online Text/Quiz/Exam Help
      • Blog
      • Accountancy Online Test Help
      • Accounts Online Test Help
      • Online Finance Test Help
      • Accountancy Online Exam Help
      • Accounts Online Exam Help
      • Accounts Online Quiz Help
      • Finance Online Quiz Help
      • Help Me with My Homework
      • Help My Homework
      • Online Accountancy Quiz Help
      • Online Finance Exam Help
      • Online Homework Help Australia
      • Online Homework Help Canada
      • Online Homework Help Hong Kong
      • Online Homework Help Singapore
      • Online Homework Help UAE
      • Online Homework Help UK
      • Online Homework Help USA
      • Report Writing
      • Dissertation

      live support software